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Targeted Endodontic Microsurgery

Thirteen thousand years ago, a hunter-gatherer received treatment described in the Journal of Physical Anthropology as “…consistent with tool‐assisted manipulation to remove necrotic or infected pulp in vivo and the subsequent use of a composite, organic filling (1).” Were this not to have occurred during the Paleolithic Era, the use of a file for root canal treatment would seem uninteresting, although the obturation concoction of bitumen, vegetable fibers and hair might raise an eyebrow. But this was a stone file!

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